NLP T.O.T.E. Model of Strategies
First formulated in Plans and the Structure of Behavior published in 1960 by George Miller, Eugene Galanter and Karl H Pribram. T.O.T.E. stands for Test, Operate, Test, Exit which is a sequence based on computer modeling.
- The first Test is a cue or trigger that begins the strategy. It establishes the criteria "fed forward" and used as a standard for the second test.
- The Operation accesses data by remembering, creating, or gathering the information required by the strategy from the internal or external world.
- The second Test is a comparison of some aspect of the accessed data with the criteria established by the first test. The two things compared must be represented in the same representation system.
- The Exit, or Decision Point, or Choice Point is a representation of the results of the test. If there is a match, the strategy exits. If there is a mismatch, the strategy recycles.
- The strategy may recycle by:
- Changing the outcome or redirecting the strategy.
- Adjusting the criteria, chunking laterally or reorienting.
- Refining or further specifying the outcome.
- Accessing more data.
Structural Well-Formedness Conditions
- Has a well-defined representation of outcome.
- Uses all three (3) of the Major representational systems.
- At least three points in every loop.
- Every loop includes an exit point.
- Goes external after "N" steps or "X" time.
- Uses least number of steps to get the outcome.
- Logical sequence with no steps missing.
- Has the internal & external sensory modalities to get desired outcome.
- Preserves positive by-products and eliminates negative consequences.
- Follows T.O.T.E. model.
- Minimizes bad feelings.
Functional Well-Formedness Conditions
- Trigger which starts the process and carries with it the final criteria.
- Operations to alter the present state to bring it closer to the desired state.
- Test which compares the present state to the desired state based on presorted or ad hoc criteria.
- Decision point which determines the next step based on the congruence or lack of congruence of the test comparison.
Knowing the functional well-formedness conditions allows you to ask very specific and directed questions. Knowing the functional properties of strategies allows one to recognize when one receives an answer to a different question than the one asked.
Questions to Elicit Strategies
|Test||What let you know it was time to decide?
When did you begin deciding?
|Operate:||How did you know there were alternatives?
How do you generate alternatives?
|Test:||do you evaluate alternatives?
What has to be satisfied in order for you to decide?
|Exit:||How do you select which alternative to take?
How do you know (or what lets you know) that you have decided?
- Strategy Components and Elements
- Strategies - Design and Installation
- Strategies - Representational Systems
- Motivation Strategies
- Learning Strategies
- Spelling Strategies
- Strategy Elicitation
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